One of the primary places we see the best-interest model employed in human medicine is when parents make decisions on behalf of their children. This Part will start with a discussion of the substituted judgment and best interests standards as it focuses on health-care decision making for three categories of patients who are unable to make their own decisions: In most cases where the patient has never had decisional competence, including those involving developmentally disabled adults and young children, courts use the best interest standard.
Substituted Judgment and Best Interests Standards And, in some cases, this premise has been argued very directly. Making Health-Care Decisions for Our Companion Animals This Part will look at how helpful the legal framework for clinical decision-making in human medicine can be in answering similar questions in veterinary medicine.
And finally, how might changes in the law affect the way these decisions are made? Best interest standards, as will be discussed in more detail below, generally weigh the risks and benefits of various treatment options to determine what is best for the individual patient.
Animals do not have the capacity to make their own health care decisions. In at least one case, however, this approach was used where the patient in question had never had the capacity to make health care decisions.
While many of the treatment choices in human medicine are also available in veterinary medicine, the comparative cost of these treatments can be dramatically lower in veterinary medicine. Who decides what level of care an animal receives?
A wider range and greater sophistication of treatment options also means that more money is being spent on veterinary treatment.
This question and others concerning treatment choices for companion animals will be explored in the next Part. Under a best interest analysis, treatment decisions for those unable to make their own choices are based on a weighing of the burdens and benefits of that treatment.
Should owners of animal property be able to make unchecked decisions about their medical treatment, even when those decisions are viewed as clearly harmful to the animal?
Health-Care Decision-Making for Minor Children The best interest model is also the standard used in evaluating treatment choices for young children. Guardianship The American Veterinary Medical Association promotes the optimal health and well-being of animals.
Approved by their executive board in Maytheir resolution reads as follows: Responses to Arguments Against Animal Guardianship Most of the arguments against the use of animal guardian language are premised on this common theme: Nonetheless, given the potential for confusion, the various concerns raised, and the general resistance to these initiatives, perhaps it is better to come up with alternative models for health care decision-making for companion animals.Animal Decision-making and the ‘ Concorde Fallacy’ TREE vol.
2, no. 6, June benefits, without committing the Behaviour is ‘ Concordian’ when it is based on past invest- ment, regardless of whether the en- suing decision is adaptive. E. Curio Both animals and humans appear to com- cerned with decision-making in ani- mals. Unlike the parent-child decision-making context, where use of abuse and neglect statutes to challenge parental decision-making has been appropriately criticized, the reasons for such criticisms are not applicable in the animal context--another difference between owner-animal and parent-child decision-making.
The existence of consensus decision making in animals that do not communicate verbally raises intriguing questions. Information about decision makers in wild birds and mammals is often based on small data sets or anecdotal reports but in et billsimas.comive leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move.
Nature, (). This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) (formerly Ethical Implications of Animal Biotechnology: Considerations for Animal Welfare Decision Making Animal Agriculture’s Future through Biotechnology, Part 9.
Animal welfare and decision making in wildlife research. biologists and animal welfare advocates as is illustrated by the volume dedicate to this subject in the journal Animal Welfare (Volume 19, issue 2) thereby weakening the decision-making capacity for management of these vulnerable populations.
2. Consensus decision making in animals Larissa Conradt and Timothy J. Roper Department of Biology and Environmental Science, John Maynard Smith Building, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, BN1 9QG.Download